Hand Color tinted photo of Iron Horn a Hunkpapa Sioux Native American 1872
The Hunkpapa (Lakota: Húŋkpapȟa) are a Native American group, one of the seven branches of the Lakota Sioux tribe. During the 1870s, when the Native Americans of the Great Plains were fighting the United States, they were asked to join and did fight alongside Sitting Bull. The majority of Hunkpapa Lakota now reside in the Standing Rock Indian Reservation of South and North Dakota.
The name Húŋkpapȟa is a Sioux word meaning “Head of the Circle”, due to the tradition of the Húŋkpapȟa in setting up their lodges at the entryway to the circle of the Great Council when the Sioux met in convocation.
The Sioux /’su?/ are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America. The term can refer to any ethnic group within the Great Sioux Nation or to any of the nation’s many language dialects. The Sioux comprise three major divisions based on language divisions: the Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota.
The Santee Dakota (Isá?yathi; “Knife”) reside in the extreme east of the Dakotas, Minnesota and northern Iowa. The Yankton and Yanktonai Dakota (Ihá?kt?u?wa? and Ihá?kt?u?wa?na; “Village-at-the-end” and “Little village-at-the-end”), collectively also referred to by the endonym Wichíyena, reside in the Minnesota River area. They are considered to be the middle Sioux, and have in the past been erroneously classified as Nakota. The actual Nakota are the Assiniboine and Stoney of Western Canada and Montana. The Lakota, also called Teton (Thít?u?wa?; possibly “Dwellers on the prairie”), are the westernmost Sioux, known for their hunting and warrior culture.
Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations, communities, and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States; and Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan, and Alberta in Canada.